Civil War

To a large extent, the American Civil War was fought in the cities and farms of Tennessee, and only Virginia saw more battles. Tennessee was the last of the Southern states to declare secession from the Union and had a substantial portion of its citizens reject the idea of leaving the United States. Much of the state had seen devastation resulting from years of warring armies criss-crossing the limestone hills. Its rivers were key arteries to the Deep South, and, from the early days of the war, Union efforts focused on securing control of those transportation routes, as well as major roads and mountain passes such as the Cumberland Gap.